What does this even mean?

Let’s help you get the hang of the lingo.


Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)

It is a set of rules that outline how you, as a user, can use the software provided by the service provider. These rules are designed to ensure that everyone using the service has a good experience, runs smoothly, and prevents misuse or illegal activities.


In simpler terms, consider it a list of do’s and don’ts when using the software. It helps ensure that you use the software responsibly and respect the rights of other users and the service provider. Some common points in an AUP might include the following:

  • You shouldn’t use the service for illegal activities or to break any laws.
  • You can’t harass, threaten or harm other users.
  • You must not try to hack or disrupt the service, like trying to gain unauthorised access to other users’ accounts or spreading viruses.
  • You can’t share your account with others or use someone else’s without permission.
  • You must follow any additional rules or guidelines provided by the service provider.


If you break any of these rules, the service provider might act against you, such as warning you, suspending your account, or terminating your access to the service. That’s why reading and understanding the AUP is important before you start using any SaaS application.

Acceptance testing

Acceptance testing of software is a process where the person or organisation that requested the software, often called the client or customer, checks if the finished software meets their requirements and expectations. This testing is usually one of the last steps before the software is considered complete and ready for use.


The main goal of acceptance testing is to ensure the software works correctly and is easy to use, so the client can be confident that it will help them accomplish their tasks or solve their problems as intended. This testing can also catch any remaining bugs, errors, or issues that might affect the software’s performance or usability.

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is a way to solve disagreements or conflicts that might come up between parties involved in a contract without going to court. Instead of having a judge decide the outcome, ADR uses different methods to help the parties work out their issues and come to an agreement in a more informal and often faster way.


In simpler terms, it’s like having a referee to help sort out a problem without going through a full-blown court case. There are a few different ADR methods commonly used, including:

  • Negotiation: The parties involved in the conflict work together directly, sometimes with the help of lawyers, to find a solution they can both accept. This is the most informal method of ADR.
  • Mediation: A neutral mediator helps both sides discuss their issues and try to find a solution that everyone can agree on. The mediator doesn’t make decisions for the parties but guides them in finding a solution.
  • Arbitration: In this method, a neutral person or a panel of experts, called an arbitrator or arbitration panel, listens to both sides present their case and then makes a decision, which can be binding or non-binding, depending on the agreement. It’s more formal than mediation but still less formal than a court trial.


Contracts often include ADR clauses because it can be quicker, cheaper, and less stressful than going to court. Plus, it allows the parties to have more control over the process and outcome, which can be helpful in preserving relationships or maintaining privacy.


When a contract refers to an “affiliate,” it means a person or organisation that is closely connected to or has a specific relationship with one of the parties involved. This connection can be through ownership, control, or influence.


An affiliate can be a parent company, a subsidiary, or another company that shares common ownership or is controlled by the same group. In simpler terms, affiliates are like family members within a group of companies, with one company being related to another through a shared parent company or similar controlling interests.


For example, imagine two companies, Company A and Company B. If Company A owns more than 50% of Company B, then Company B is considered an affiliate of Company A, and vice versa. Alternatively, if the same parent company owns Company A and Company B, they would also be considered affiliates.


When a contract mentions an affiliate, it’s usually to clarify that certain rights, obligations, or benefits apply to the main party involved in the contract and to their affiliated companies or individuals. This can help protect the interests of all connected parties and ensure they’re treated fairly in the agreement.

Application Programming Interface (API)

An Application Programming Interface, or API, is a set of rules and tools that allows different software applications to communicate and share information. Think of it as a translator or a middleman that helps two programs understand each other and work together.


In simpler terms, imagine you’re at a restaurant and want to order food. You would look at the menu and tell your order to the waiter. The waiter then takes your order to the kitchen, where the chef prepares your food. In this scenario, the waiter acts like an API. They help you (the customer) communicate with the kitchen (the restaurant’s system) so you can get what you want.


APIs are important because they allow various software applications to work together and exchange data, even if built using different programming languages or running on different platforms. For example, when you use a weather app on your phone, the app might use an API to get the latest weather data from a weather service provider. Without the API, your app couldn’t access that information and display it to you.


With APIs, developers can save time and effort; they don’t need to create everything from scratch. They can use existing APIs to access specific functions or data and focus on building unique features for their applications.


In a contract, the term “assignment” refers to the process of transferring one party’s rights, responsibilities, or benefits under the contract to another person or organization. Simply put, it’s like passing on your role in the contract to someone else, so they can step into your shoes and take over your part in the agreement.


For example, imagine you have a contract with a company to provide a specific service, like cleaning their office. If you decide to assign the contract to another cleaning company, that company would take over your role and become responsible for providing the cleaning services to the first company, according to the contract terms.


Usually, contracts have specific clauses related to assignment, which lay out the rules and conditions for transferring the contract to another party. Some contracts might allow assignment freely, while others may require the other party’s consent or set certain limitations on the assignment process.


It’s important to understand the assignment rules in a contract because they can affect your ability to transfer your rights and obligations to someone else if your circumstances change, like if you decide to sell your business or can’t fulfil the contract for any reason.



When a contract refers to a “breach,” it means that one of the parties involved in the agreement has not followed or fulfilled the terms and conditions they agreed to. In simpler words, a breach is like breaking a promise or not doing what you said you would do in the contract.


When a breach of contract occurs, the affected party may have the right to take legal action, such as asking for compensation, demanding that the other party correct the breach, or even ending the contract. It’s important to understand what constitutes a breach and what your rights and responsibilities are if it happens to protect your interests and navigate the situation effectively.

Browse-Wrap License

A “browser wrap license” is an online agreement used by websites, software, or digital services that a user accepts simply by using or browsing the website or service. It’s called a “browser wrap” because the terms and conditions are often displayed in a way that doesn’t require the user to actively click “I agree” or take any other specific action to accept them. Instead, the user is considered to have agreed to the terms by using the site or service.


The terms and conditions for a browser wrap license are usually available as a link or somewhere on the website, but they might not be directly in front of the user when they start using the site. This is different from a “clickwrap” agreement, where users must actively click a button or checkbox to agree to the terms before they can use the service.



A “carve out” in a contract is a specific exception or exclusion to a general rule or provision that applies to the rest of the agreement. In other words, it’s like making a special rule that says, “This part of the contract doesn’t apply in certain situations.”


Carve-outs are often used to clarify certain situations or circumstances where the usual rules of the contract should not apply or need to be modified. They can help to protect the interests of the parties involved, ensuring that the contract is fair and takes into account unique scenarios that might not fit under the general rules.


For example, let’s say a company hires a freelance designer to create a logo, and the contract states that the designer cannot work for any competitors during the project. However, the designer already has an ongoing project with another company that could be seen as a competitor. In this case, a carve-out might be added to the contract to make an exception for the designer’s pre-existing project, so they wouldn’t be breaking the contract by continuing to work with that company.


In a contract, “cession” refers to the act of transferring a party’s rights or benefits under the contract to another person or organization. This usually involves a specific type of right, such as the right to collect money owed by a debtor.


Clickwrap contracts, also known as “click-through” or “click-agreements,” are digital contracts that users agree to by clicking a button or checking a box on a website or app. These contracts are commonly used for online services, software installations, and e-commerce transactions. Here’s a simple explanation of clickwrap contracts:


When you sign up for an online service, download an app, or buy something online, you might see a checkbox that says, “I agree to the Terms and Conditions” or “I accept the Privacy Policy.” By clicking the box or button, you’re entering into a clickwrap contract with the website or app provider. This means you’re agreeing to their terms and conditions, even if you haven’t read them.


Clickwrap contracts are legally binding in most jurisdictions. However, in certain jurisdictions, their enforceability depends on how clearly the terms and conditions are presented and whether users have a reasonable opportunity to review and understand them before clicking “I agree.”


In summary, clickwrap contracts are digital agreements that you accept by clicking a button or checkbox, making you legally bound by the terms and conditions laid out by the service or product provider.

Cloud Services Agreements

Cloud services contracts define the terms and conditions for using cloud services, which can be categorised into three main service models: Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). Each model has different features, responsibilities, and levels of control for both the provider and the customer.


  • SaaS (Software as a Service) contracts-

In SaaS, the provider hosts and maintains software applications, which customers access over the internet. SaaS contracts typically cover aspects like access rights, data privacy, security, and service availability. They may also include terms related to software updates, user licenses, support, and service level agreements (SLAs) specifying performance and uptime guarantees. Pricing is usually based on a subscription model, with fees determined by the number of users, features, or usage levels.


  • PaaS (Platform as a Service) contracts-

PaaS provides a platform for customers to develop, run, and manage their applications without the need to maintain the underlying infrastructure. PaaS contracts usually address the provision and maintenance of the platform, including aspects such as operating systems, middleware, and development tools. SLAs may focus on platform availability, performance, and scalability. Pricing for PaaS is often based on resource usage or a subscription model, depending on the provider.


  • IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) contracts-

IaaS offers virtualized computing resources over the internet, such as virtual machines, storage, and networking. Customers are responsible for managing their applications, data, and operating systems, while the provider is responsible for the underlying hardware infrastructure. IaaS contracts typically cover infrastructure provisioning, maintenance, and availability, as well as data privacy, security, and backup. SLAs may include uptime guarantees, response times, and performance metrics. Pricing is generally based on a pay-as-you-go model, with fees depending on resource usage.

Consequential damages

Consequential damages, when referred to in a contract, are the indirect financial damages or losses that one party may suffer as a result of the other party not fulfilling their obligations under the contract. These damages or losses are not an immediate or direct result of the breach but rather occur as a consequence of the breach.


In simpler terms, consequential damages are unexpected financial problems that happen because someone didn’t do what they promised in the contract.


For example, imagine you own a bakery and signed a contract with a supplier to deliver flour every week. If the supplier suddenly stops delivering the flour, you wouldn’t be able to bake and sell your products. In this case, the consequential losses could include the lost profits from not being able to sell your baked goods, the cost of finding a new supplier, or even losing customers who go to other bakeries because you don’t have any products to sell.


Consequential losses can be difficult to predict or calculate, as they depend on the specific circumstances and how the breach affects the parties involved. In many contracts, parties will include clauses that limit or exclude liability for consequential losses to avoid being held responsible for unpredictable or potentially large financial losses. It’s important to understand what consequential losses are and how they’re addressed in a contract, so you can be aware of your rights and responsibilities if something goes wrong.

Copyleft license

A copyleft license is like a rule that says, “You can use and change this software for free, but if you make improvements or create something new with it, you must also share your work with others under the same conditions.”


The main idea behind copyleft licenses is to promote sharing, collaboration, and the open exchange of ideas in the software development community. By requiring that any changes or improvements be released under the same terms, copyleft licenses ensure that the software and its derivatives remain accessible and beneficial to everyone rather than becoming restricted or proprietary.


One of the most well-known copyleft licenses is the GNU General Public License (GPL), which is used by many popular open-source software projects, such as the Linux operating system.

When using or contributing to software under a copyleft license, it’s important to understand the specific terms and conditions, as they can affect how you’re allowed to use, modify, and distribute the software and any changes you make to it.

Copyright is a legal concept that gives the creators of original works, like books, movies, music, paintings, or software, the exclusive right to control how their work is used, copied, distributed, and displayed. It protects the creator’s intellectual property, which means the ideas or expressions they’ve put into a tangible form.


In simple terms, copyright is like an ownership claim that says, “I made this, so I get to decide who can use it and how.”


When someone has a copyright on a work, it means they have the right to:

  • Reproduce the work: They can create copies, like printing documentation or making copies of the software.
  • Distribute the work: They can sell, rent, or share the work with others.
  • Create derivative works: They can create new works based on the original, like a sequel to a book or a remix of a song.
  • Publicly perform or display the work: They can publicly show it, like screening a movie or performing a play.


Understanding and respecting copyright laws is important because using someone else’s copyrighted work without permission could lead to legal consequences, like being sued for damages. However, there are some exceptions, like “fair use,” that allow limited use of copyrighted works for purposes like education, news reporting, or commentary without needing the creator’s permission.


Data Protection

To better understand data protection, it’s important to distinguish between two related concepts: data security and data privacy.


Data security involves the measures taken to protect your personal information from being accessed, stolen, or tampered with by unauthorised individuals or systems. This includes things like encryption, firewalls, and strong access controls. Data security clauses in tech contracts may specify the required security measures, such as the use of encryption or regular security audits.


Data privacy, on the other hand, focuses on the proper handling of your personal information, making sure it’s only used for the intended purposes and shared with authorised parties.

Database Rights

In a contractual and legal context, database rights are a form of intellectual property protection that specifically applies to databases. A database is a structured collection of data or information, like a customer list, product catalogue, or research data. Database rights protect the investment and effort that goes into creating, organizing, and maintaining a database, even if the individual pieces of data themselves are not necessarily protected by copyright.


In simple terms, database rights are like saying, “I put a lot of work into collecting and organizing this information, so I should have control over who can use it and how.”


Database rights give the creator or owner of a database certain exclusive rights, including:

  • The right to control the copying, distribution, or transmission of the database or a substantial part of it.
  • The right to control the extraction or re-utilization of the contents of the database, meaning others cannot take a significant portion of the data and use it for their own purposes without permission.


These rights help prevent unauthorized copying or use of a database and protect the investment of time, money, and effort that goes into creating and maintaining the database.


It’s worth noting that not all countries recognize database rights. For example, the European Union has specific laws that grant database rights, while the United States generally relies on copyright law to protect databases in certain cases.


In tech contracts, database rights might be addressed when discussing the ownership, usage, or licensing of databases, as well as when outlining the rights and responsibilities of the parties involved with respect to the protected database. Understanding database rights and their implications are important for both creators and users of databases to ensure they comply with the relevant laws and contractual agreements.

Data security

Data security is an essential aspect of technology agreements, as it involves the protection of sensitive information from unauthorised access, corruption, or theft. In the context of software development agreements, Cloud Services agreements, and API (Application Programming Interface) agreements, data security plays a crucial role in ensuring trust and compliance between the parties involved.


Here’s an overview of data security in each type of agreement:


Software Development Agreements: These contracts involve the creation of custom software for a client by a developer or development company. Data security provisions are important to protect the client’s proprietary information, user data, and any other sensitive information involved in the development process. The agreement should specify security measures and standards that the developer must adhere to, such as encryption methods, access controls, and regular security audits.


Cloud Services Agreements: In Software as a Service agreements, a provider offers cloud-based software to customers on a subscription basis. Since the software is hosted by the provider, customer data is stored on their servers. Data security provisions in SaaS agreements ensure the protection of customer data from breaches, unauthorized access, and data loss. The agreement should outline the provider’s data security responsibilities, such as maintaining up-to-date security measures, data backup policies, and compliance with applicable data protection laws (e.g., GDPR).


API Agreements: Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) allow different software applications to communicate and share data with each other. API agreements establish the terms and conditions for using an API, including data security requirements. As APIs facilitate data exchange between systems, it’s crucial to protect sensitive information from potential breaches or unauthorised access. The agreement should define security measures like authentication, encryption, and access controls. It may also outline responsibilities for monitoring and addressing security vulnerabilities or incidents.


In summary, data security is a critical component of technology agreements, as it helps safeguard sensitive information and maintain trust between parties. For each type of agreement, it’s important to have clear provisions outlining the data security responsibilities of the involved parties and the measures they must take to ensure data protection.

Defined term

A “defined term” in a contract is a specific word or phrase that is given a special meaning within the context of the agreement. These defined terms are often capitalized to distinguish them from their normal meanings. By assigning a clear and specific definition to a term, the contract aims to eliminate ambiguity and ensure that all parties have a common understanding of what the term means.


In simpler language, a defined term is like creating a shortcut or nickname for a concept, idea, or item within the contract, so everyone knows exactly what you’re talking about when you use that term.


For example, in a contract between a software developer and a client, the agreement might include a defined term like “Software,” which could be defined as “the custom computer program developed by Developer for Client, as described in Schedule A.” Throughout the contract, whenever the term “Software” is used, it will refer specifically to that custom computer program rather than any other software in general.


Defining terms in a contract helps to improve clarity and avoid misunderstandings, making it easier for all parties to know their rights and responsibilities. When reviewing a contract, it’s important to pay close attention to the defined terms and their specific meanings, as they can significantly impact the interpretation and application of the agreement.


Software documentation is a collection of written materials that helps users understand and use a software program effectively. In the context of tech contracts, software documentation is important because it provides clear instructions, guidelines, and information to both the users and the developers.

Tech contracts often include clauses related to software documentation, which can cover the following aspects:


Creation: These clauses define the responsibility of the software developer or provider to create clear, concise, and accurate documentation to accompany the software. This can include user guides, technical manuals, installation instructions, and any other relevant materials.


Content: These clauses specify what the documentation should cover, such as explanations of the software’s features, instructions on how to use it, troubleshooting guides, and any necessary legal or regulatory information.


Format: They outline the format in which the documentation should be provided, like online help files, PDF manuals, or printed booklets. The format should be easily accessible and understandable for the intended users.


Updates: These clauses require the software provider to regularly update the documentation to reflect any changes or improvements made to the software, ensuring that users always have access to accurate and up-to-date information.


Delivery: They establish the method and timeline for providing the documentation to the users or clients, whether it’s bundled with the software, available for download, or delivered separately.


Maintenance: They outline the responsibility of the software provider to keep the documentation accurate, relevant, and up to date, as well as to address any issues or errors in the documentation.


In summary, software documentation is an essential part of tech contracts, as it ensures that all parties understand the software’s functionality and can use it effectively. Tech contracts often include clauses related to the creation, content, format, updates, delivery, and maintenance of software documentation to ensure it meets the needs of the users and clients involved in the agreement.

Derivative Work

In the context of software agreements, “derivative works” refers to new creations that are based on, adapted from, or incorporate parts of an existing software program. Derivative works can include modifications, enhancements, or additions to the original software, or they can be entirely new programs that use parts of the original software in some way.


A derivative work is like making a new software or changing an existing one by using some parts or ideas from another software.


For example, if a programmer takes an open-source software program and adds new features or improves its performance, those changes would create a derivative work. Similarly, if someone creates a new program that uses certain components or code snippets from an existing software, the new program would also be considered a derivative work.


Software agreements often address derivative works to clarify the rights and responsibilities of the parties involved in creating, using, or distributing these new creations. For instance, the agreement might specify who owns the intellectual property rights to the derivative works or set guidelines for how the works can be shared or licensed.


Understanding the concept of derivative works is important in software agreements because it helps both parties know their rights and obligations when creating and using new works based on the original software. This can help prevent disputes or misunderstandings over ownership, licensing, and distribution of the software and its derivatives.


A “deliverable” refers to a specific product, result, or output that a service provider is expected to provide to their client as part of the project or service. Deliverables can be tangible or intangible, like a physical product, a written report, a software application, or expert advice.


When it comes to “assigned deliverables” and “licensed deliverables,” these terms relate to the way intellectual property (IP) rights are handled for the deliverables provided by the service provider.


  • Assigned Deliverables: In this case, the service provider transfers or assigns their intellectual property rights in the deliverable to the client. This means that once the deliverable is completed and handed over, the client becomes the owner of the intellectual property and can use, modify, or distribute the deliverable as they wish without any limitations. The service provider no longer has any rights over the deliverable.


  • Licensed Deliverables: Unlike assigned deliverables, the service provider retains their intellectual property rights in the deliverable but grants the client a license to use the deliverable. The license can be exclusive or non-exclusive, and the agreement will outline the specific terms of use. This means the client can use the deliverable according to the terms and conditions of the license, but they do not own the intellectual property. The service provider may be able to use the same deliverable for other clients or projects as well, depending on the license agreement.


In summary, when you work with a professional service provider, they will create and provide you with certain results, called “deliverables.” If a deliverable is “assigned,” it means you become the owner of that result and can do whatever you want with it. If a deliverable is “licensed,” it means the service provider still owns the result, but you can use it according to the agreed-upon terms.


Dependencies refer to the responsibilities, inputs, or actions that a customer must fulfil in order for a project to progress smoothly, especially in the context of software development agreements and professional services agreements. In these cases, the service provider and the customer work together to achieve a successful outcome. For the project to succeed, both parties must fulfil their respective obligations.


Some common customer dependencies in software development and professional services agreements include:

  • Timely provision of information: The customer must provide all necessary information, including project requirements, specifications, or relevant business data, in a timely manner to enable the service provider to design and develop the software or provide the services as per the agreement.
  • Access to resources: The customer must provide access to required resources, such as hardware, software, network infrastructure, or physical access to premises, as needed for the project’s success.
  • Availability of key personnel: The customer should ensure that key personnel, such as subject matter experts, project sponsors, or decision-makers, are available for consultations, reviews, or approvals when needed.
  • Decision-making and approvals: The customer must make decisions and provide approvals promptly to avoid delays in project timelines.
  • Timely feedback and review: The customer should provide constructive feedback and perform necessary reviews during various stages of the project, such as during design, development, testing, or deployment.
  • Collaboration and communication: The customer should maintain open and effective communication channels with the service provider to facilitate smooth coordination and collaboration.
  • Training and user adoption: The customer is responsible for ensuring that its employees receive appropriate training and support to use the software or services provided effectively.
  • Compliance with legal and regulatory requirements: The customer should inform the service provider of any specific legal or regulatory requirements that may impact the project and ensure that they adhere to those requirements.


By understanding and fulfilling their dependencies, customers can ensure that their software development or professional services projects proceed as planned, reducing the risk of delays, misunderstandings, or other issues that may negatively impact the project’s success.

Direct losses

When referred to in a contract, “direct losses” are the immediate and easily measurable financial losses that one party suffers due to the other party not fulfilling their obligations. These losses are straightforward to identify and calculate because they are directly linked to the breach or failure to perform.


In simple terms, direct losses are the clear and obvious financial problems when someone doesn’t do what they promised in the contract.


For example, let’s say you hire a company to paint your house, and you pay them in advance. If they never show up to do the job, your direct loss would be the money you paid to the company since you didn’t receive the service you paid for.


Direct losses are different from consequential losses, which are the indirect financial losses that occur due to the breach and are usually more difficult to predict or calculate. Consequential losses can include lost profits, additional costs to find a replacement or damage to your reputation.


In contracts, parties often address liability for direct and consequential losses separately, specifying the extent to which each party is responsible for these different financial losses. Understanding the difference between direct losses and consequential losses can help you better protect your interests when entering into a contract and know your rights and responsibilities if something goes wrong.


End-User License Agreement (EULA)

An End User License Agreement (EULA) is a legal contract between the creator or provider of a software or digital product and the person who uses it, typically called the “end user.” The EULA outlines the terms and conditions for the end user to use the software or digital product.


A EULA is like a set of rules you must agree to before using someone’s software or digital product.


When you install or download a new software or app, you’re often asked to accept a EULA before using it. By clicking “I agree” or similar, you’re essentially saying you’ll follow the rules set by the creator or provider to use their software.


Understanding and agreeing to a EULA is important because it helps ensure you use the software or digital product legally and responsibly. If you don’t follow the EULA terms, you could face legal consequences, such as revoking your license to use the software or being held liable for damages.

Enterprise Software License

An enterprise software license is generally for the whole company or, in some cases, for a specific division in the company.


Usually, the company’s IT department can install the software on individual computers from a central server.


The cost for this license might depend on the company’s size, the number of computers using the software, or the maximum number of people allowed to use it simultaneously.

Exclusive Software License

An exclusive software license is an agreement between the person or company that created the software (the licensor) and the person or company that wants to use it (the licensee). In this agreement, the licensor gives the licensee special rights to use, distribute, or modify the software that no one else has.


Think of it like having a unique key to a special room that only you can enter. With an exclusive software license, the licensee gets certain privileges that others don’t have. This can include being the only one who can sell the software in a specific region, having exclusive rights to change the software, or being the sole provider for a certain industry.


Exclusive licenses can be very valuable for the licensee because they can give a competitive advantage in the market. At the same time, the licensor can benefit from this type of agreement by charging higher fees or royalties for the exclusive rights.


However, it’s important to note that even though the licensee gets exclusive rights, they don’t own the software. The licensor still holds the copyright and intellectual property rights and only permits the licensee to use the software under certain conditions defined in the license agreement.



An indemnity in a contract is like a safety promise between two parties. It’s a way for one party to say, “If something goes wrong and you get into trouble because of my actions, I’ll have your back and cover the costs or damages.”


In other words, when an indemnity clause is included in a contract, one party (the indemnifier) agrees to protect the other party (the indemnitee) from agreed losses or damages that might happen because of the indemnifier’s actions or responsibilities as defined in the contract.


For example, imagine you hire a painter to paint your house. The contract you sign with the painter includes an indemnity clause. This clause means that if the painter accidentally spills paint on your neighbour’s car and your neighbour sues you, the painter will step in and cover the costs of fixing the car and any legal fees.


Indemnity clauses can help both parties feel more secure when entering a contract because they know they have some protection if things don’t go as planned. However, it’s important to carefully read and understand the indemnity clause, as its scope and limitations can vary depending on the specific wording and the type of indemnity.


Infringement is like breaking the rules that protect someone’s Intellectual property.


For example, let’s say someone invents a cool new gadget and gets a patent to protect their invention. If another person starts making and selling the same gadget without permission, they infringe on the inventor’s patent. Similarly, if a person downloads and shares a copyrighted movie without permission, they infringe on the copyright.


In technology agreements, parties often have to follow certain rules about using and sharing each other’s intellectual property. If one party breaks these rules, it can lead to infringement. This involves using someone’s software without the right license, copying parts of a patented product, or using a trademarked logo without permission.


Infringement can lead to legal consequences, like lawsuits, fines, or having to pay damages to the person whose intellectual property rights were violated. To avoid infringement, it’s important to respect and follow the rules outlined in technology agreements and to always seek permission when using someone else’s intellectual property.



Know-how is often a defined term that forms part of intellectual property. Know how generally regarded practical knowledge, skills, and experience a person or company has in a specific area. This includes unique techniques, problem-solving methods, or manufacturing processes that are valuable and not widely known.


Liability cap

A liability cap in a contract is a limit on the amount of money one party has to pay to the other if something goes wrong. It’s like a safety net that protects both sides from having to pay too much if they make a mistake or fail to fulfil their responsibilities in the agreement.


Contracts may have different liability caps. Often there will be a general liability cap and a super cap.


A general liability cap and a super cap are both limits on the amount of money one party has to pay to the other in case something goes wrong, but they apply to different types of liabilities.

  • General liability cap: This is a limit on the amount of money one party has to pay to the other for typical liabilities that might arise during the course of fulfilling the contract. These could include things like mistakes, delays, or breaches of the agreement. The general liability cap is usually a fixed amount or a percentage of the contract value, providing a level of financial protection to both parties.
  • Super cap: A super cap is a separate, higher limit on the amount of money one party has to pay to the other for specific, more severe liabilities or risks. These could include things like breach of the data protection provisions or the confidentiality provisions.


The super cap is typically higher than the general liability cap because these situations are considered more serious and can have bigger consequences. It’s a way to ensure that the responsible party is held accountable for their actions without completely shielding them from the financial repercussions.


In summary, a general liability cap covers ordinary liabilities that may occur during the course of a contract, while a super cap covers more severe liabilities that result from more severe breaches. The super cap is typically higher to account for the greater potential damages in these situations.


Understanding liability and to what extent liability can be capped within your jurisdiction is vital. Each legal jurisdiction is unique and treats the exclusion or limitation of liability differently. 

License-Back Clause

A license back clause is a provision in a technology agreement that grants one party (usually the licensee) the right to use certain intellectual property (IP) developed or improved by the other party (usually the licensor) during the term of the agreement. This clause is often included in technology agreements where the licensee and the licensor collaborate or share technology to develop new products or services.


The main purpose of a license back clause is to create a fair and balanced relationship between the parties, allowing them to benefit from each other’s contributions and ensuring that no party is unfairly disadvantaged due to the sharing of IP. In addition, these clauses help promote innovation and collaboration, as both parties are incentivised to work together and share their expertise.

Liquidated Damages

Liquidated damages are a specific amount of money agreed upon by both parties in a contract as compensation if one party fails to fulfil their obligations or breaks the contract terms. Instead of having to go to court to figure out how much money one party owes the other, liquidated damages set a predetermined amount that makes it easier and faster to resolve the issue.


Think of it like this: you hire someone to paint your house, and you both sign a contract that states the job must be done within 30 days. The contract includes a liquidated damages clause that says if the painter doesn’t finish the job on time, they have to pay you $100 for each day they’re late. If the painter finishes 5 days late, they would owe you $500 in liquidated damages (5 days x $100 per day). This saves both of you the time and effort of figuring out the actual cost of the delay and helps avoid potential legal disputes.


Liquidated damages may be subject to certain limitations and generally needs to be fair and reasonable to be enforceable. 


Different legal jurisdictions have different ways of treating liquidated damages in contracts. It is important that you understand the specific treatment of liquidated damages provisions in your legal jurisdiction before including a liquidated damages clause in your contract.


Master Agreement

A Master Agreement sets the foundation for future contracts or transactions between two parties. It outlines the general terms and conditions that will apply to any specific agreements (often called Statements of Work, SOWs, or Service Orders) made between the parties for services.


Think of it like a framework or a set of guidelines that both parties agree to follow when working together on projects. The Master Agreement helps streamline the process by having the general terms agreed upon in advance, so you don’t have to negotiate every detail for each individual project.


By having a Master Agreement in place, companies can save time and effort when entering into new contracts for technology services, as they only need to negotiate the specific details of each project, rather than starting from scratch each time.

Material Adverse Change Clause (MAC Clause)

A MAC clause is a provision often found in contracts, including technology agreements, allowing one party to renegotiate or terminate the contract if significant negative events or changes occur.


For example, in Software Licensing Agreements: A MAC clause can be included to protect the licensee if the licensor experiences a significant negative event, such as the technology becoming obsolete or a major regulatory change affecting the licensor’s ability to provide the software.


The main purpose of a MAC clause is to provide a safety mechanism for parties in a contract when unexpected, significant negative events occur. These clauses help manage the risk associated with entering into a long-term agreement and provide a way to address unforeseen circumstances that might impact the ability of one party to fulfil their contractual obligations.


Project milestones are important events or checkpoints that represent progress in the project. They help break the project into smaller, manageable pieces and enable both the client and the service provider to track progress, assess performance, and make any necessary adjustments.


Milestones often have deliverables attached to them, which are the specific results or products that the service provider is expected to provide at each milestone. By having deliverables tied to milestones, it ensures that the project is progressing as planned and that the client receives tangible results throughout the project.


There are different types of milestones in a software development contract, such as:

  • Planning Milestones: These are the initial milestones where the project scope is defined, and a detailed plan is created. This may include determining project requirements, creating a timeline, and establishing a budget.
  • Design Milestones: These milestones involve creating the software’s design, such as user interface (UI) design, user experience (UX) design, and system architecture. Deliverables might include design documents, wireframes, or mock-ups.
  • Development Milestones: These are the milestones where the actual coding and implementation of the software take place. They can be broken down into smaller milestones based on specific features or functionalities. Deliverables might include working prototypes or functional pieces of the software.
  • Testing Milestones: These milestones involve testing the software for bugs, performance, and compatibility issues. Deliverables may include test results, bug reports, or a list of required fixes.
  • Deployment Milestones: These milestones are related to preparing the software for release, such as finalizing documentation, training materials, or marketing materials. The ultimate deliverable at this stage is the final, ready-to-launch software product.
  • Post-launch Milestones: These milestones involve ongoing support and maintenance of the software, such as providing updates, fixing bugs, or implementing new features based on user feedback.

Moral Rights

Moral rights are a set of non-economic rights that protect the personal and reputational interests of authors and creators of intellectual property.


Moral rights are important to address in technology agreements. In some jurisdictions, moral rights are protected by law and cannot be waived or transferred entirely. Addressing moral rights in technology agreements helps ensure compliance with these legal requirements.


Non-Assert Clause

Non-assert clauses, also known as non-assertion clauses, are provisions commonly found in technology agreements that prevent one party (usually the licensee) from suing or making legal claims against the other party (usually the licensor) for intellectual property (IP) infringement related to the licensed technology. In other words, the licensee agrees not to assert their IP rights against the licensor during the term of the agreement.


Non-assert clauses are generally legal and binding, as long as they meet the necessary requirements for enforceability under the applicable law. However, the legality and enforceability of non-assert clauses can vary depending on the jurisdiction and the specific circumstances of the agreement.


In most jurisdictions, non-assert clauses are considered valid contractual provisions as long as they are clear, unambiguous, and not against public policy. 


It’s important to note that the scope and enforceability of non-assert clauses may be subject to limitations imposed by antitrust or competition laws. For example, if a non-assert clause is found to restrict competition or create an anti-competitive effect, it may be considered unenforceable or even illegal.


Additionally, some jurisdictions may have specific regulations or restrictions related to non-assert clauses in certain industries or contexts. Therefore, it’s crucial to ensure that if you want to use a non-assert clause in your agreement, you know exactly how these clauses are treated within your specific legal jurisdiction.

Non-Solicitation Clause

A non-solicitation clause is a part of a contract that prevents one party from trying to “steal” or hire away the other party’s employees or customers during and sometimes for a period after the contract ends. This clause is usually included in agreements where both parties have access to each other’s employees or customers, such as partnerships, employment contracts, or vendor relationships.


In simple terms, imagine you run a business and partner with another company to work on a project together. You both sign a contract that includes a non-solicitation clause. This means that, while you’re working together and for a certain time afterward, neither of you can try to hire the other’s employees or convince the other’s customers to switch to your business. The non-solicitation clause helps protect both companies from losing valuable employees or customers to the other party, allowing them to focus on their shared goals and maintain a healthy business relationship.


Object Code

Object code is a version of a computer program that has been converted from human-readable source code into a format that a computer can understand and execute. When programmers write software, they use programming languages like Python, Java, or C++ to create the source code, which is a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do.


However, computers can’t directly understand source code written in these programming languages. So, the source code must be translated into a lower-level language, called machine code, which consists of binary digits (0s and 1s) that the computer’s processor can interpret and execute.


The process of converting source code into machine code is done by a special software called a compiler. The output of this process is the object code. It’s an intermediate form of the program that’s not as easily readable by humans as the original source code, but it’s closer to the machine code that the computer can understand.


In simple terms, think of object code as a bridge between the human-readable source code written by programmers and the machine code that the computer can execute. It’s an essential step in turning software ideas into functioning programs that can run on a computer.


An OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) is a company that produces hardware, like computers or smartphones, and pre-installs software created by another company onto their products before selling them to customers.


A software license agreement is generally entered between the software creator (e.g., Microsoft or Adobe) and the OEM, which allows the OEM to legally include and distribute the software with their products. This agreement outlines the terms and conditions under which the OEM can use, install, and distribute the software.


So, when you buy a new computer or device with pre-installed software, it’s likely that an OEM has entered into a software license agreement with the software creator to make that possible. This benefits both the hardware manufacturer and the software creator, as it helps to increase the adoption of their products, while providing a better user experience for the customer.

Open Source Software

Open source software is a type of software whose source code is made available to the public, allowing anyone to view, use, modify, and distribute it freely. This is different from proprietary software, where the source code is kept secret, and only the compiled program is distributed. Open source software promotes collaboration, knowledge sharing, and innovation by allowing developers to build upon and improve existing software.


However, using open source software as part of your software comes with some legal risks.


Open source software is typically distributed under specific licenses, such as the GNU General Public License (GPL), Apache License, or MIT License. Each license has its own terms and conditions that users must follow, such as providing proper attribution, including the original license text, or releasing any modifications under the same license.


Service levels

Service levels in tech contracts are the performance expectations a service provider promises to meet while delivering their services. They help ensure the quality and reliability of the services and allow the client to know what they can expect from the provider. If the provider doesn’t meet these expectations, there may be consequences, such as financial penalties or other remedies.


Service levels are typically addressed as a separate schedule to the contracts. The service levels outline the specific performance metrics and target the service provider commits to achieving. Some common aspects of service levels in technology agreements include:

  • Availability: This refers to the percentage of time a service or system should be up and running without any downtime or interruptions. For example, a service provider may promise a 99.9% uptime for their service.
  • Response Time: This is the amount of time it takes for the service provider to acknowledge or respond to a client’s request or issue. For example, the service provider may commit to responding to support requests within 4 hours.
  • Resolution Time: This is the amount of time it takes for the service provider to fix or resolve an issue reported by the client. For example, the service provider may commit to resolving critical issues within 24 hours.
  • Performance: This refers to how well a system or service functions, such as the speed at which it processes requests or the accuracy of the results it provides. For example, a service provider may guarantee a specific data processing speed or a maximum error rate.
  • Support: This refers to the level of assistance the service provider offers to the client, such as the availability of customer support, the range of support channels (e.g., phone, email, chat), and the hours of support provided.


Service levels usually include penalties or remedies if the service provider fails to meet the agreed-upon standards. These can include financial penalties, service credits, or even termination of the agreement in extreme cases.


When referring to software in a contract, you are typically referring to a collection of computer programs, data, and related materials that enable a computer or other digital devices to perform specific tasks or functions. In the context of a contract, the term “software” often encompasses several elements, including:

  • Source code: The human-readable programming code written in a specific programming language that is used to create the software.
  • Object code: The machine-readable binary code that is generated by a compiler or interpreter from the source code. This is what actually runs on a computer or digital device.
  • Executable files: Files that contain compiled object code and can be run by the computer or device to perform the intended functions of the software.
  • Libraries and frameworks: Collections of pre-written code, functions, or subroutines that can be used by the software to perform common tasks or provide certain functionalities.
  • Documentation: Manuals, user guides, help files, and other materials that explain how to use, install, configure, or maintain the software.
  • Copyrights, trademarks, and other intellectual property rights: Legal rights and protections associated with the software, including its source code, object code, and related materials.
  • Updates, patches, and bug fixes: Modifications, improvements, or corrections to the software that are released periodically by the developer to address issues or enhance functionality.


In a contract, these elements might be detailed explicitly or implicitly, and the specific terms and conditions will vary depending on the nature of the agreement, such as a software license agreement, software development agreement, or software maintenance agreement.

Software Escrow

A software escrow agreement is like a safety net for people who buy or use software. For example, imagine you are buying a house, and you put some money in a safe place until everything is settled. That’s what happens with software escrow.


The software’s source code (the secret recipe that makes the software work) is stored with a neutral third party called the escrow agent. This is done to protect both the person or company who created the software (the developer) and the person or company using it (the licensee).


The developer is protected because they don’t have to share their secret recipe with everyone. The licensee is protected because they can still access the source code if something bad happens to the developer, like if they go out of business or don’t provide support anymore.


The agreement will outline specific conditions or triggers that allow the licensee to get the source code from the escrow agent. For example, if the developer stops providing updates or goes bankrupt, the licensee can ask the escrow agent to release the source code. This way, the licensee can keep using and maintaining the software without being stuck in a bad situation.

Software Support and Maintenance

Software maintenance refers to the process of regularly updating, improving and fixing software applications after they have been deployed or released. This ongoing activity ensures that the software remains functional, secure, and efficient over time. It also helps address any issues or bugs that may arise, adapt the software to new hardware or operating systems, and add new features to meet changing user needs or market demands.


Software maintenance typically involves four main types of activities:

  • Corrective maintenance: Fixing any errors, bugs, or issues discovered in the software after its release. This type of maintenance helps keep the software running smoothly and ensures it remains reliable.
  • Adaptive maintenance: Updating the software to work with new hardware, operating systems, or other external changes. This can involve adapting the software to meet new regulatory requirements, industry standards, or technological advancements.
  • Perfective maintenance: Improving the software’s functionality, performance, or user experience by adding new features or enhancing existing ones. This type of maintenance helps keep the software relevant and competitive in the market.
  • Preventive maintenance: Proactively identifying and addressing potential issues before they become problems. This can include optimising the software’s code, improving security measures, or updating documentation.


In summary, software maintenance is an essential part of the software development lifecycle that ensures the software remains functional, up-to-date, and secure. It helps address any issues or bugs, adapt the software to changing environments, and improve its performance and usability over time.


Specifications are detailed descriptions of what a software program or application should do and how it should work. Think of it as a blueprint or a roadmap for creating the software. It outlines the features, functions, and requirements that the software needs to have, so that developers know exactly what to build and how it should perform.


Software specifications can include:

  • Functional requirements: These describe the features and capabilities of the software, like what tasks it should perform, the steps involved in each task, and how users will interact with it.
  • Performance requirements: These explain how well the software should work, such as how fast it should process information, how much data it can handle, or how many users it can support at the same time.
  • Technical requirements: These detail the technical aspects of the software, like the programming languages, frameworks, or platforms it should be built on, as well as any compatibility or integration, needs with other systems.
  • Design constraints: These outline any limitations or restrictions that the software must follow, like industry standards, regulatory requirements, or specific client needs.
  • User interface and user experience (UI/UX) requirements: These describe how the software should look and feel, including the layout, colours, fonts, and overall user experience.


A software specification is like a recipe for building a software program. It tells developers what the software should do, how it should work, and what it should look like, so they can create a program that meets the expectations of the people who will use it.


Termination for cause

A termination for cause clause is a part of a contract that allows one party to end the agreement if the other party fails to fulfil their obligations or breaks important rules set out in the contract. In other words, it’s a way to end the contract early if one party doesn’t hold up their end of the deal.


For example, let’s say you hire a company to build a website for your business, and you both sign a contract. The contract has a termination for cause clause that lists specific reasons for ending the agreement, such as the company not delivering the website on time or providing poor-quality work. If the company doesn’t meet the deadlines or the quality of the work is not up to the agreed standard, you can use the termination for cause clause to end the contract and potentially seek compensation for any damages you’ve suffered.


A termination for cause clause is a safety mechanism that helps protect both parties in a contract by allowing them to exit the agreement if the other party doesn’t live up to their responsibilities.

Termination for convenience

A termination for convenience clause is a part of a contract that allows one or both parties to end the agreement without having to give a specific reason or prove that the other party has breached the contract. This means that one party can decide to end the agreement early, even if everything is going smoothly and both parties are fulfilling their obligations.


For example, imagine you hire a company to provide ongoing marketing services for your business, and you both sign a contract. The contract has a termination for convenience clause that allows either party to end the agreement with a certain amount of notice, such as 30 days. If you decide that you no longer need the company’s services, you can use the termination for convenience clause to end the contract by giving them the required notice, without having to prove that they’ve done anything wrong.


In simple terms, a termination for convenience clause provides flexibility for the parties involved in a contract, allowing them to end the agreement early without having to justify their decision based on a specific breach or failure by the other party.

Third-Party Materials

“Third-party materials” refers to any software components, code, resources, or other elements created or owned by someone other than the main parties involved in the agreement. These materials might be included in or used alongside the main software product being developed, licensed, or sold under the agreement.


In simple terms, third-party materials are like the parts or pieces made by someone else that is used in the software you’re working with.


For example, a software developer might use a library or plugin created by another developer to add certain features or functions to their software. These libraries or plugins would be considered third-party materials because they are not created by the developer or the client involved in the software agreement.


Agreements often address third-party materials to clarify the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions of their use, distribution, or modification. This can include specifying how third-party materials can be used in the main software product, ensuring proper licensing and attribution, and addressing potential intellectual property concerns.


Understanding the role of third-party materials in a software agreement is important because it can help you avoid potential legal issues, such as copyright infringement or licensing disputes, arising from using these materials in the software. It also helps ensure that all parties know their rights and responsibilities when using or incorporating third-party materials in their software products.

Trade Secrets

Trade secrets generally refer to confidential information that gives a business a competitive advantage in its industry. They can include a wide range of information, such as manufacturing processes, recipes, marketing strategies, or even software code. 


In tech contracts, trade secrets are often vital components, as the technology industry relies heavily on innovative ideas and unique processes to maintain a competitive edge.


To protect trade secrets in tech contracts, parties typically include specific provisions addressing confidentiality, non-disclosure, and non-competition. These provisions aim to prevent the unauthorised disclosure or use of trade secrets by employees, contractors, or other third parties. In addition, tech contracts might also include specific clauses regarding the ownership of intellectual property (IP) and the licensing of trade secrets.


The treatment of trade secrets varies between jurisdictions.


For example, in the US, the Uniform Trade Secrets Act (UTSA) and Defend Trade Secrets Act (DTSA) provide a uniform legal framework across certain states, while in the UK, trade secret protection is primarily based on common law and regulations.


When drafting tech contracts, it is essential to consider the applicable laws of your legal jurisdiction that deals with trade secrets.


Value Added Reseller

Value-Added Reseller (VAR) is a business model where a company, known as the reseller, adds value to a software product and then sells it to customers. This “value” could be in the form of additional features, services, or customisations tailored to specific industries or customer needs.


Imagine a software product as a plain pizza. The VAR would be like a pizza shop that takes the plain pizza, adds toppings and other ingredients to make it more appealing, and then sells it to customers as a complete and customized meal.


In the software world, the value-added reseller would take a basic software product, enhance it with extra features or services (the “toppings”), and then sell the improved software to customers who benefit from the added value.


The model allows businesses to get software tailored to their specific needs while enabling software developers to reach a broader market with their products.